Maxaad ka taqaannaa cudurkii coronavirus lamidka ahaa ee dunida ku dilay 50 milyan oo ruux?

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Haddii aadan horay u maqlin hargabkii la oran jiray Spanish Flu, coronavirus ayaa hadda kugu baraarujiyay in xanuunkaas uu dad badan dunida ku laayay billowga qarnigii labataanaad.

Waxaa xanuunkaas lagu tilmaamaa “hooyadii dhammaan cudurrada faafa”, waxaana uu galaaftay nolasha inta u dhaxeysa 40-50 milyan oo qof muddo laba sano gudahood ah – intii u dhaxeysay 1918-kii ilaa 1920-kii, sida laga soo xigtay Hay’adda Caafimmaadka Adduunka ee WHO iyo xarunta dhexe ee xakameynta cudurrada.

Seynisyahanada iyo dadka ku xeel dheer taariikhda waxay aaminsan yihiin in cudurkaas uu ku dhacay saddex meelood meel ka mid ah dadka ku noolaa adduunka, oo markaas ay tiradooda guud ahayd 1.8 bilyan oo qof.

Wuxuu sababay dhimasho ka badan tii uu sababay Dagaalkii Koowaad ee Adduunka, kaasoo istaagayay markii uu cudurkan sii faafayay.

Xilli uu hadda adduunka la tacaalayo dhibaatada Covid-19, waxaan dib u milicsaneynaa cudurkii ugu dambeeyay ee safmarka ahaa ee dunida saameeyay – sideyse xaaladdu noqotay markii uu idlaaday?

1921, duni ka duwan sidii hore

American doctors and nurses during the 1918 flu pandemic

Sanadkii 1918-kii, cilmiga seyniska iyo dawooyinka wuxuu ahaa mid aad u xaddidan marka loo eego sida hadda loola tacaalayo coronavirus.

Dhakhaatiirta xilligaas jirtay way ogaayeen in waxyaabo ili-maqabato ah ay sababayeen Spanish flu, cudurkana uu isaga kala gudbayay qofba qofka kale, laakiin waxay u heysteen inuu ka dhalanayay jeermis oo uusan ahayn fayras.

Dawooyinka la heli karay xitaa way xaddidnaayeen – tusaale ahaan dawadii qallajiyaha ee ugu horreysay caalamka waxaa la helay 1928-kii, oo toban sano kaddib ah.

Tallaalkii ugu horreeyay ee hargab loo adeegsadana waxaa dadka loo fasaxay 1940-meeyadii.

Tan ugu sii daranna waxay ahayd, hannaanka caafimaadka ee adduunka ma uusan dhisneyn. Xitaa dalalka qaniga ah, nadaafadda goobaha dadweynaha waxay ahayd nolol heer sare ah oo aysan cid walba awoodin.

“Dalalka warshadaha ku hormaray, dhakhaatiirta intooda badan iskood ayey u shaqeysan jireen ama waxaa maalgalin jiray hay’ado samafal ah iyo urur diimeedyo, dad badanna ma aysan heli karin dhakhaatiirta,” ayey tiri Laura Spinney, oo ah wariye wax ka qorta arrimaha seyniska, sidoo kalena qortay buug ay uga sheekeysay Hargabkii Spanish-Flu iyo sida uu u baddalay dunida.

Dadka da’da yar ee saboolka ah

A campaign hospital during the Spanish Flu pandemic

Waxyaabaha kale ee xaaladda uga sii daray waxaa ka mid ahaa in cudurka Spanish flu uu wax u weerarayay si ka duwan sida cudurradii ka horreeyay ee safmarka noqday, tusaale ahaan mid mid socday 1889-kii ilaa 1890-kii, oo dunida oo dhan ku dilay in ka badan 1 milyan oo ruux.

Inta badan dadka u dhimanayay waxay da’dooda u dhaxeysay 20 ilaa 40 sano, raggana si gaar ah ayuu ugu sii badnaa – sababtana waxaa loo maleynayaa inay haayd maadaama sida la aaminsan yahay uu cudurka ka billowday xeryihii ciriiriga ahaa ee milatariga furinta hore ee Reer Galbeedka, uuna sii fiday markii ay ciidamada dalalkooda ku laabteen kaddib Dagaalkii Koowaad ee Adduunka.

Cudurkan ayaa sidoo kale si daran u saameeyay dalalka saboolka ah.

Daraasad lasoo saaray 2020-ka oo uu hoggaaminayay cilmi-baaraha jaamacadda Harvard ee lagu magacaabo Robert Barro ayaa lagu sheegay in dalka Mareykanka ay cudurkaas uga dhinteen 0.5% ka mid ah shacabkiisa oo tiro ahaan lagu qiyaasay 550,000 oo ruux, halka Hindiya uu ka laayay 5.2% oo ka mid ah shacabkeeda, kuwaasoo tiro ahaan gaarayay 17 milyan oo qof.

Saameyntii dhaqaale ee uu geystayna waxay ahayd mid aad u ballaaran. Barro iyo kooxdiisa waxay khasaaraha dhaqaale ee cudurkaas ka dhashay ku qiimeeyeen 6% ka mid ah dhaqaalaha u soo xarooda waddamada.

Haweenka shaqeynaya

Woman at an assembly line in a UK factory in the 1920s

Maadaama uusan xanuunkii Spanish flu u sababin burburka xiriirka bulshada si ka weyn sidii uu sababay cudurkii Black Plague ee qarnigii 14-aad, wuxuu wax weyn ka baddalay isku dheellitirka ragga iyo dumarka.

Haweeneyda cilmi baaraha ka ah jaamacadda Texas ee A&M, Christine Blackburn, ayaa sheegtay in shaqaale yaraantii ka dhacday Mareykanka ee ay sababeen dagaalkii koowaad iyo fayraska ay waddada u xaartay in haweenka ay shaqooyinka aadaan.

“Markii lasoo gaaray 1920-kii, haweenka waxay shaqaalaha dalka ka ahaayeen 21%,” ayey tiri Blackburn.

Isla sanadkaas, Aqalka Wakiillada Mareykanka ee Congress-ka ayaa saxiixay sharcigii dumarka u oggolaanayay xuquuqda codeynta doorashada.

“Waxaa caddeymo loo hayaa in cudurkii dillaacay 1918-kii uu wax badan ka baddalay xuquuqda haweenka ee caalamka,” ayey hadalkeeda sii raacisay Blackburn.

Mushaaraadkii shaqaalaha ayaa sidoo kale la kordhiyay, maadaama ay jirtay shaqaale la’aan.

Dhaxalkii xanuunka badnaa ee ka heleen carruurta cusub ee dhalaneysay

Babies in a maternity

Seynisyahanada sameeyay cilmi baaris ay ku darsayeen carruurta cusub ee dhalaneysay intii uu socday cudurka Spanish flu, waxayna ogaadeen inay aad halis ugu jireen dhibaatooyin ay ka mid yihiin wadne xanuun, taasoo ay uga duwanaayeen carruurtii dhalatay fayraska ka hor iyo kaddib.

Daraasado laga sameeyay dalalka UK iyo Brazil ayaa muujiyay in carruurtii dhalatay intii u dhaxeysay 1918-kii ilaa 1919-kii ay ku yaraayeen kuwo shaqo helay ama waxbarashada heerka sare aaday.

Sheekooyinka qaar waxay arrintaas ku micneeyee saameyn ka timid walwalka ay hooyooyinka uurka leh ka qaadayeen cudurkaas faafayay.

Ardaydii Mareykanka ee dhalatay 1919-kii ayaa la sheegay in iyaguna ay ka fahmo yaraayeen kuwa kale.

Gumeysi diidkii iyo wadashaqeyntii caalamiga ahayd

Gandhi

Sanadkii 1918-kii Hindiya waxay ku hoos jirtay gumeysigii Ingiriiska oo xukumayay hal qarni ka badan.

Fayraskii Spanish flu ayaa dalkaas gaaray bishii May ee isla sanadkaas – wuxuuna dadka hindida ah u saameeyay si ka daran sida uu u saameeyay dadkii reer Britain ee waddankaas daganaa.

Qiyaas xisaabeed lagu sameeyay tirada dhimashada ayaa muujisay in dadka Hinduuga ah ee dhimanayay ay ahaayeen 61.6 ka mid ah 1,000 dhimasho, halka dadka kale ee reer Yurubta ah ay ahaayeen kaliya 9 ka mid ah 1,000 dhimasho.

 

Wadaniyiintii Hindiya ee xornimada u xusul duubayay ayaa arrintaas awgeed ku dooday in maamulkii gumeysiga Ingiriiska ay si khaldan u maareynayeen dhibaatada cudurka.

1919-kii, Mahatma Gandhi, oo ka mid ahaa xornimo-doonka Hindiya ayaa majallad lagu magacaabi jiray Young India ku qoray eedeyn uu u jeediyay madaxda Ingiriiska.

Personnel in hazard suits

Dhanka kale, cudurkan ayaa hoos u dhigay wadashaqeyntii caalamiga ahayd – taasoo markii horena uu saameeyay Dagaalkii Koowaad ee Adduunka.

Sanadkii 1923-kii, ururkii ka horreeyay Qaramada Midoobay, ayaa aasaasay Guddiga Caafimaadka.

Wuxuu markaas ahaa guddi farsamo oo abuuray nidaam cusub oo lagu xakameeyo cudurrada safmarka ah.

Waxaa qeybtaas mas’uul ka ahaa khubaro caafimaad, halkii ay diblomaasiyiin ka maamuli lahaayeen.

Laakiin Hay’adda Caafimaadka Adduunka ee WHO waxaa ugu dambeyn la aasaasay sanadkii 1948-kii.

Horumarradii laga gaaray caafimaadka dadweynaha

Doctor examining a child

Khasaarihii ka dhashay fayraska dunida ku faafay wuxuu horseeday in horumar laga sameeyo dhinaca caafimaadka dadweynaha.

Sanadkii 1920-kii, Ruushka ayaa noqday waddankii ugu horreeyay ee yeeshay waax si gaar ah loogu talagalay caafimaadka dadweynaha. Dalalkii kalena way ku wada daydeen.

“Dalal badan waxay 1920-meeyadii abuureen wasaarado caafimaad,” ayey buuggeeda ku tiri Laura Spinney.

“Tani waxay ahayd natiijo tos ah oo ka dhalatay cudurka, kaasoo inta uu socday aan shirarka laga qeyb galin jirin madaxda caafimaadka guud, ama shaqada looga joojin jiray dhaqaale la’aan awgeed.”

Xayiraadaha iyo kala fogaanshaha dadka way shaqeeyeen waagaas

Crowd gathered near a church in San Francisco in 1918

Farqi caan baxay ayaa u dhaxeeyay labo magaalo oo ka tirsan Mareykanka.

Bishii September ee sanadkii 1918, magaalooyinka Mareykanka waxaa ka socday ol’ole dhaqaale iyo taageero loogu raadinayay dagaalka wali socday.

Labo ka mid ah magaalooyinkaas ayaa qaaday tallaabooyin kala duwan. Laakiin cudurka Spanish flu ayaa sanadkaas gaaray Mareykanka.

Markii ay magaalada Philadelphia go’aansatay inay qorshaheeda dadka isugu imaanayeen kusii socoto, magaalada St Louis waxay go’aansatay inay joojiso.

Hal bil kaddib, dhimashada cudurka ee magaalada Philadelphia waxay ka sarreysay 10,000 oo ruux. Laakiin St Louis waxaa ku dhintay wax ka yar 700 oo qof.

Magaalooyinkii xayiraadda soo rogay ayaa sidoo kale dhakhso uga soo kabtay khasaarihii dhaqaale.

Cudurkaas ma la illoobay?

Munch's "Self-Portrait with the Spanish Flu"

Iyadoo casharro badan laga qaatay, haddana Spanish flu wuxuu noqday cudur siyaabo badan loo illoobay.

Isla sida Covid-19, wuxuu saameeyay qaar ka mid ah dadka caanka ah.

Waxaa la xanuunsaday madaxweynihii Mareykanka Woodrow Wilson iyo Ra;iisul Wasaarihii Britain Lloyd George, halka madaxweynihii Brazil Rodrigues Alves uu u geeriyooday.

Laakiin cudurka Spanish flu waxaa indhaha dadka iyo taariikhda soo gaartaba ka daboolay sheekooyinka Dagaalkii Koowaad ee Adduunka.

Taas waxaa sabab u ah in dowladaha intooda badan ay warbaahintooda ka hor joogsadeen inay shacabka u tabiyaan saameyntii uu cudurkaas ku yeeshay xilligii dagaalka.

Rodrigues Alves, former Brazil president

Iyadoo aan si fiican loo baahinin xilligii uu socday cudurkaas, haddana waxaa laga qadiyay buugaagta taariikhda iyo dhaqanka caanka ah.

“Ma jirto meel taariikh ahaan loogu qoray magaca Spanish Flu, mana heleysid buug wax ka qoray taariikhdaas gabi ahaanba”, ayuu yiri Mark Honigsbaum, oo ah taariikh yahan.

Mid ka mid ah waxyaabaha dhifka ah ee lagu xasuusto xanuunkaas waxaa ka mid ah sawir gacmeed uu farshaxamiistigii reer Norway ee lagu magacaabi jiray Edvard Munch iska sameeyay isagoo la xanuunsanaya cudurka.

Waa hubaal in cudurka Covid-19 uu hadda wax badan dib u xasuusiyay dadka.

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